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Published On: 28 Jun 2012 | Last Updated On: 01 Aug 2013

Pathology is a branch of medical science that deals with causes, processes, development and effects of diseases in plants and animals. It is a broad field that concentrates on the changes in organs, tissues, and cells that are caused by disease. Pathologists perform tests on body tissues, secretions and other specimens to see whether a disease is present and to determine its stage. Surgeons may consult pathologists if they find unexpected problems during an operation. Pathologists also do postmortem examinations to determine the cause of death when the cause is unclear. Animal pathologists are called veterinarians or zoologists (animal scientists) who often specialize in poultry, livestock, or pets while plant pathologists are botanists (plant scientists) whose special field is sometimes called phytopathology. In the broadest sense, nearly all research which links manifestations of disease to identifiable processes in cells, tissues, or organs can be considered pathology. Graduates can never run out of job opportunities in this field.

List of Courses:

  • Diploma in Pathology    
  • Diploma in Clinical Pathology
  • Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery in Pathology
  • Bachelor of Audiology Speech and Language Pathology    
  • Master of Science in Pathology    
  • Master of Dental Surgery in Oral Pathology
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Clinical Pathology
  • Doctor of Medicine in Pathology    
  • Doctor of Philosophy in Pathology    
  • Doctor of Philosophy in Speech Pathology and Audiology

Courses and eligibility:

Courses in the field of pathology are being offered at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels by a number of medical colleges and universities in India. Candidates who have completed 10+2 examination with physics, chemistry and biology from any recognized board are eligible to apply for the UG courses. For the PG programs, graduation in related field from any recognized university is mandatory.

Specializations -

Some of its specialized fields are:

  • Hematology
  • Plant Pathology
  • Chemical Pathology
  • Cytopathology
  • Neuropathology
  • Dermatopathology
  • Forensic Pathology
  • Paediatric Pathology
  • Surgical Pathology
  • Veterinary Pathology
  • Medical Microbiology
  • Molecular Genetic Pathology
  • Blood Banking / Transfusion Medicine

Career Prospects:

Pathologists work in hospitals, medical laboratories, schools, colleges and universities. They are employed by government agencies associated with agriculture, public health, law enforcement, and many other fields. Private companies that make products such as drugs and insecticides also employ pathologists. They can also advance to become full professors in colleges or universities or directors of research or administrators at universities, medical centers, government agencies, or private companies. Pathologists in the medical field can advance to a position as head of the pathology department in a large hospital. They can also start their own diagnostic laboratories or become consultants to private industry. As a result of increased public interest in preserving the environment, expanding food supplies, and improving health care, private companies are expected to devote funds to research in pathology. There will be a great number of positions in sales, marketing, and research management.

Therefore, the job outlook for pathologists is very good.

Some job types:

  • Consultants
  • Medical Examiner
  • Professors
  • Cytotechnologist
  • Mortuary Assistant
  • Dermatopathologist
  • Health Care Workers
  • Forensic Technician
  • Medical Lab Technician


The salary of pathologists may vary according to the standard of the organization. As a beginner, one can earn anywhere between Rs 22000 and Rs 30000 per month. Within a few years of experience, they can earn up to Rs 60,000 per month in the private sector including other perks.

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