Top UK Universities Ranking 2013
University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge was established in 1209, is a public research university. The university is rich in history - its famous Colleges and University buildings attract visitors from all over the world. But the University's museums and collections also hold many treasures which...
London School of Economics
London School of Economics (LSE) was founded in 1895 by Beatrice and Sidney Webb, the School has an outstanding reputation for academic excellence. LSE is a specialist university with an international intake and a global reach. Its research and teaching span the full breadth of the...
University of Oxford
University of Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Oxford is a unique and historic institution. There is no clear date of foundation, but teaching existed at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167, when Henry II banned English students...
Imperial College London
Imperial College London (ICL) was established in 1907 and is located at South Kennigton in central London. Consistently rated amongst the world's best universities, Imperial College London is a science-based institution with a reputation for excellence in teaching and research. ...
Durham University established in 1832 was granted a Royal Charter in 1837. It is third oldest university in England, after Oxford and Cambridge and a leading European centre of learning for 1,000 years. They seek to achieve the highest distinction in research and scholarship which...
University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews is Scotland's first university and the third oldest in the English speaking world, founded in 1413. Over six centuries it has established a reputation as one of Europe's leading and most distinctive centres for teaching and research. The University of St...
University of Warwick
University of Warwick was established in 1961 and received its Royal Charter of Incorporation in 1965. The University initially admitted a small intake of graduate students in 1964 and took its first 450 undergraduates in October 1965. In October 2007, the student population was over...
University College London
University College London was established in 1826 in order to open up education in England for the first time to students of any race, class or religion. Its founding principles of academic excellence and research aimed at addressing real-world problems, inform the university’s...
Lancaster University was established in 1964. Lancaster University is an internationally highly-ranked leader in the provision of inspiring teaching and research. Lancaster is one of only a handful of universities with a collegiate system which has helped to forge a strong sense of...
University of Bath
University of Bath established in 1966 was granted university status Royal Charter, however the roots can be traced back to the Bristol Trade School - a technical school established in 1856. University of Bath is now firmly established as a top ten UK university with a reputation for...
University of Bristol
University of Bristol was established in 1876 as University College, Bristol. It was the first higher education institution in England to admit women on an equal basis to men. The University is internationally renowned and one of the very best in the UK, due to its outstanding...
The University of York
The University of York was established in 1963. In less than 50 years, they have become one of the top ten universities in the UK for teaching and research – and is first in the UK and eighth in the world in the Times Higher Education world rankings of universities less than 50...
University of Exeter
University of Exeter established in 1855, is a top UK university which combines world leading research with very high levels of student satisfaction. It is one of the UK’s most popular and successful universities with campuses in Exeter, Devon, and near Falmouth in Cornwall....
Loughborough University was established in 1909 as Loughborough College of Advanced Technology. In 1996 Loughborough College of Advanced Technology was renamed to Loughborough University. The University is internationally acclaimed for its research in the area of sustainability. It...
University of Southampton
University of Southampton is one of the top 15 research universities in UK and has achieved consistently high scores for its teaching and learning activities. The University researchers are ranked among the top five in UK universities for engineering and computer science, nursing and...
The University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh established in 1583 by Royal Charter granted by James VI. The University is an internationally renowned centre for teaching and research. In 2012 it was ranked the University of Edinburgh as 15th in the UK. At University of Edinburgh, the Edinburgh University...
University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow was established in 1451 is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world. The University has fostered the talents of seven Nobel laureates, one Prime Minister and Scotland’s inaugural first minister. It is a member of the prestigious Russell...
King's College London
King's College London established in 1829 as a university college, is a constituent college of the University of London in the United Kingdom. The College has grown and developed through mergers with several institutions who have their own distinguished histories. These include the...
University of Nottingham
University of Nottingham was established in 1881 as Nottingham’s first civic college. In 1948, the college was awarded the Royal Charter and became the University of Nottingham. The University is governed by two main bodies: Council and Senate. The University's administrative...
University of Leicester
University of Leicester was established in 1921 as a university college. It is a publicly-funded institution with a leading international reputation for teaching and research. They have 23,000 full-time, part-time and distance learning students. Of the 12,600 full-time students,...
University of Sussex
University of Sussex was established in 1960, receiving its Royal Charter in August 1961. Sussex is a leading research university, as reflected in the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise. Over 90 per cent of Sussex research activity was rated as world leading, internationally excellent...
University of Surrey
The University of Surrey is an ambitious, research-intensive academic institution with undergraduate, postgraduate and research programmes ranging from aerospace to English literature, from nursing to nuclear physics, from business to biochemistry. Its Faculties cover Engineering...
University of Birmingham
University of Birmingham was established in 1900 by Queen Victoria by Royal Charter. Birmingham represented a new model for higher education. This was England’s first civic university, where students from all religions and backgrounds were accepted on an equal basis. Birmingham...
Newcastle University, Newcastle is a major research-intensive university located in Newcastle upon Tyne in the north-east of England. It was established as a School of Medicine and Surgery in 1834 and became the University of Newcastle upon Tyne by an Act of Parliament in August...
Queen's University Belfast
Queen's University Belfast established in 1845, it became a university in its own right in 1908. Today, it is an international centre of research and education rooted at the heart of Northern Ireland. Queen's University Belfast is a member of the Russell Group of 24 leading UK...
Royal Holloway, University of London
Royal Holloway, University of London was established in 1849 as Bedford College. The College remained there until the time of the merger with Royal Holloway College in 1985. In 1900, both Bedford and Royal Holloway were admitted as Schools of the University of London, when it was...
University of East Anglia
University of East Anglia (UEA) established in 1963, is an internationally renowned public university based in a campus that provides top quality academic, social and cultural facilities to over 13,000 students. UEA is ranked in the top one per cent of universities in the world and...
University of Sheffield
University of Sheffield was established in 1828 as Sheffield Medical School and the Sheffield Technical School (1884). These three institutions came together in 1897 to form the University College of Sheffield, which in turn became the University of Sheffield in 1905. It is a leading...
University of Manchester
University of Manchester was established in 2004 by the merger of The Victoria University of Manchester and the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), two of Britain's most distinguished universities, each with a long and proud heritage. The...
School of Oriental and African Studies
School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) was established in 1916. It is a college of the University of London and the only higher education institution in the UK specialising in the study of Asia, Africa and the near and Middle East. SOAS is a remarkable institution uniquely...
University of Liverpool
University of Liverpool was established in 1881 as one of the UK’s top 24 research-led universities. The University of Liverpool has an impressive history of pioneering education and research, with a particular emphasis on 'education for the professions'. The University of...
University of Reading
University of Reading was established in 1892 as an extension of Christ Church College, Oxford and the University received its Royal Charter in 1926. The University of Reading is ranked as one of the UK’s 20 most research-intensive universities and is in the top 1% of...
University of Kent
The University of Kent established in 1965, is known for world-class research, excellent teaching and an inspiring student experience with international links across the globe. It has campuses in Medway, Tonbridge and Brussels and works in partnership with Canterbury College, West...
Aston University was established in 1895, is a long established research-led University known for its world-class teaching quality and strong links to industry, government and commerce. It got the University status since 1966. Aston has been a leading university for graduate...
University of Leeds
University of Leeds was established in 1904, but its origins go back to the nineteenth century with the founding of the Leeds School of Medicine in 1831 and then the Yorkshire College of Science in 1874. In 1831 a group of young men established the Leeds School of...
Cardiff University established in 1883 as University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, is recognised in independent government assessments as one of Britain's leading teaching and research universities. Today, Cardiff University is home to more than 28,000 students and 6,000...
University of Strathclyde
University of Strathclyde was established in 1796 as a leading international technological institution. They are committed to providing a high-quality education and experience to all students regardless of their background. The University developed rapidly and by the 1890s, had...
City University London
City University London is an independent corporation, granted the status of university by Royal Charter in 1966. This complements the academic expertise offered within the University. It is a leading international University committed to academic excellence, focused on business and...
University of Essex
University of Essex was established in 1963. The university has established a worldwide reputation for top quality teaching and research since 1964. Over the past five decades they have grown to more than 11,000 students, including over 3,000 postgraduates, who come from all over the...
Heriot Watt University
Heriot-Watt University was established in 1821. Heriot-Watt University has established a reputation for world-class teaching and practical, leading-edge research, which has made the university one of the top UK universities for business and industry. The university offers degrees...
Brunel University established in 1966, is a campus-based university situated in Uxbridge, West London. In 2016, Brunel celebrates 50 years as a university. Now a university of 12,746 students – 3,309 students engaged in postgraduate and research study – their special...
Queen Mary, University of London
Queen Mary, University of London was established in 1887 as the people's palace, a philanthropic centre to provide east Londoners with educational, cultural and social activities. Queen Mary College was admitted to the University of London in 1915. Westfield College was founded in...
University of Dundee
University of Dundee was established in 1881. The University aims to ensure that every student who comes to Dundee has the best education available. The University continues to grow and develop without losing sight of its key mission - to advance and diffuse knowledge, wisdom and...
University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen (ABAN) Aberdeen was established in 1495, is one of the UK's most internationally distinguished universities. Aberdeen is Scotland's third oldest university, and the fifth most ancient in the whole United Kingdom. A university ranked consistently among the top...
Oxford Brookes University
Oxford Brookes University (OBU) was established in 1865 as Oxford School of Art. Five years later the School of Science was incorporated, offering a wide range of scientific and technical subjects and evening classes in the University Museum. In 1891, the School was taken over by...
Keele University was the first new United Kingdom University of the 20th century, established with degree giving powers in 1949 as the University College of North Staffordshire. University status, as the University of Keele, followed in 1962. The University provides high quality...
University of Hertfordshire
University of Hertfordshire established in 1952, when Hertfordshire County Council built Hatfield Technical College. The institution achieved university status in 1992 under the provisions of the Further and Higher Education Act. The University aim is to bring higher education to a...
Swansea University was established in 1920 by King George V. In 1921, Dr Mary Williams became the first woman to be appointed to a Chair at a UK university when she became Professor of French language and literature. By September 1939, there were 65 staff and 485 students. Swansea...
Goldsmiths, University of London
Goldsmiths, University of London was established in 1891. The University of London acquired the new Institute and re-established it as Goldsmiths College in 1904. The university is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, which specializes in the arts,...
University of Stirling
University of Stirling was established in 1967 by Royal Charter. The University of Stirling was the first genuinely new University in Scotland for over 400 years. The University itself stands on an estate with a rich and varied history. At the centre of the Stirling campus is the...
Robert Gordon University
Robert Gordon University (RGU) established in 1992, is a dynamic, modern place to study with an international reputation for providing high quality education from undergraduate through to PhD level. Their diverse and exciting range of degree programs are taught in state-of-the-art...
University of Lincoln
University of Lincoln was established in 1861 as Hull School of Art. The University of Lincoln has enjoyed a meteoric rise up the university league tables for good reason: they put students at the heart of everything they do. Added to that, they are a research-based university with...
Northumbria University originally known as Newcastle Polytechnic, the University was established in 1969 from the amalgamation of three regional colleges: Rutherford College of Technology, the College of Art & Industrial Design, and the Municipal College of Commerce. These...
University of Buckingham
University of Buckingham was established in 1976, is the only independent university in the UK with a Royal Charter, and probably the smallest with around 2,000 students (approx 1,300 on campus). The Honor’s degrees are achieved in two intensive years of study. The University...
University of Hull
University of Hull was established in 1927, an empowered and engaged institution. The University is an independent corporation established by Royal Charter and an exempt charity within the meaning of the Charities Act 2011. The overall aim of the University, as set out in its...
University of Huddersfield
University of Huddersfield established in 1825, is primarily located at Huddersfield town centre. In 2005, they opened two more campuses at Barnsley and Oldham in a bid to make higher education more readily available to people in both towns and the surrounding area. They offer a...
Aberystwyth University was established in 1872 in a half-finished hotel building on the sea front in Aberystwyth. There were 26 ill-prepared students and a teaching staff of three. The establishment of Aberystwyth University is one of the great romantic, indeed heroic, stories of...
University of the West of England (UWE)
University of the West of England (UWE) was established in 1970 as Bristol Polytechnic, however its roots go back to the foundation of the Merchant Venturers' Navigation School in 1595. UWE is the larger of the two universities in the city. It gained University status and its present...
Ulster University was established in 1984 by Royal Charter, located in Northern Ireland. In 1984 the New University of Ulster at Coleraine and the Ulster Polytechnic at Jordanstown came together (bringing Magee College in Londonderry and the Art College in Belfast with them) to...
Bournemouth University (BU) established in 1992, is a comprehensive research university. They are proud of their traditions and accomplishments and excited by their potential. Their academic, business and student services are geared to the professions and supported by a passionate...
Nottingham Trent University
Nottingham Trent University (NTU) is ranked amongst the UK's greenest universities in the Green League for their environmental commitment. They have 24,000 students and the university has invested £130 million across their three campuses to create an inspiring learning...
Birmingham City University
Birmingham City University (BCU) established in 1843 as Birmingham College of Art. The City of Birmingham Polytechnic was designated in 1971 by then Education Secretary Margaret Thatcher. In 1992, the further and Higher Education Act gave all polytechnics the power to adopt the title...
Plymouth University established in 1862, is one of the UK's most prominent and dynamic universities. The university consistently ranked as one of the top three modern universities. Over 30,000 students pursue various under graduate and post courses at the University campus. The...
Coventry University was established in 1843 as Coventry College of Design. In 1970 the college was renamed to Coventry College of Art amalgamated with Lanchester College of Technology and Rugby College of Engineering Technology. In 1987 the name of the college was changed to Coventry...
Bangor University was established in 1884 as the University College of North Wales. It opened its doors in an old coaching inn with 58 students and 10 members of staff. The students received degrees from the University of London until 1893 when the University of Wales, Bangor became...
University of Chichester
University of Chichester was established in 1839 as King's College London. The West Sussex Institute of Higher Education was formed in 1977 as a result of the merger between the two colleges (Bishop Otter College and the Bognor Regis College of Education). In 1995, the Institute...
University of Chester
University of Chester established in 1839, is one of the oldest higher education institutions in the country. The University of Chester has 16,800 students, drawn from over fifty countries all over the world. It was the UK's first purpose-built teacher training college, which makes...
University of Central Lancashire
University of Central Lancashire (UCLan) is a modern University established in 1828 as the Institute for the Diffusion of Knowledge, based in Preston. UCLan has evolved over the years to become a world class institution, recognised with its inclusion in the 2010 QS World Rankings...
University of Brighton
University of Brighton was established in 1968. University of Brighton is a leading professional university. The University work with professionals and companies to make sure that their courses are current and meet professional and industry standards. The University have one of the...
University of Bradford
University of Bradford began in 1882 as Bradford Technical College. In 1966, Bradford Institute of Technology was granted a Royal Charter to become the University of Bradford - the 40th university to be created in Britain. Since gaining University status in 1966, the University of...
Sheffield Hallam University
Sheffield Hallam University was established in 1843 as Sheffield School of Design. In 1992, it earned the right to the title of university and the right to award its own degrees and became Sheffield Hallam University. The university is one of UK's most progressive and innovative...
University of Westminster
University of Westminster was established in 1838 as Britain's first polytechnic. The University of Westminster has always been at the forefront of technological change in the heart of London, providing educational programs shaped by the changing needs of the capital. In 2013, the...
University of Gloucestershire
University of Gloucestershire was established in 1834 is primarily based at Gloucestershire, England, spread over four campuses, three in Cheltenham and one in Gloucester. The University was ranked as No.1 in the Green People and Planet League of Universities in 2008 and awarded a...
Bath Spa University
Bath Spa University established in 1975, is the UK's university of choice for creativity, culture and enterprise and home to students and staff from over 40 countries. In 1992, the then Bath College was granted degree-awarding powers and in 1999 became Bath Spa University College. By...
University of Winchester
University of Winchester was established in 1840 when the Winchester Diocesan Training School was founded as a Church of England foundation. In 2004, the institute got the University status and renamed as The University of Winchester. The University of Winchester offers a high...
University of Portsmouth
University of Portsmouth was established in 1869 as the Portsmouth and Gosport School of Science and the Arts. The University was ranked 60th out of 122th in the Sunday time’s university guide. The University is a member of the University Alliance, a group of 23 major...
University of Salford
University of Salford was established in 1854 as the Royal Technical Institute, Salford following a merger of the Salford Working Men's College founded in 1858 and Pendleton Mechanics Institute founded in 1850. The University aspires to be in the top quartile of UK universities by...
Cardiff Metropolitan University
Cardiff Metropolitan University has come a long way since opening the doors to the School of Art in the Old Free Library Building in St Mary's Street in 1865. From that modest beginning a colossal academia was formed and the university now has more than 16,000 students studying its...
De Montfort University
De Montfort University (DMU) established in 1869 as Leicester School of Art. In 1992 the DMU was awarded university status. Many modern DMU courses have their roots in the late 19th century and early 20th century, when the school of art and Leicester School of Technology began...
Glasgow Caledonian University
University of Bedfordshire
University of Bedfordshire was established in 2006 by order of the Privy Council, following the merger between the University of Luton and De Montfort University’s Bedford campus. University of Bedfordshire graduates enjoy excellent employment rates, with 90% in work or further...
Middlesex University is a large London University, with three further campuses overseas, in Dubai, Mauritius and Malta, and with partners across the world. Our history in higher education dates from 1878 and in 1992 we were granted the royal charter making us a university. Our...
Queen Margaret University
Queen Margaret University (QMU) was established in 1875 , as Edinburgh School of Cookery and Domestic Economy, by Christian Guthrie Wright and Louisa Stevenson, both members of the Edinburgh Ladies' Educational Association. The School was founded as a women-only institution at the...
Kingston University (KU) was established in 1899 as Kingston Technical Institute. In 1970, it became Kingston Polytechnic and in 1992, the Kingston Polytechnic becomes Kingston University. Kingston is one of the top universities for teaching in the United Kingdom and has achieved...
Manchester Metropolitan University
Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU) was established in 1970 as a Polytechnic and became a University in 1992. But MMU boasts a history of achievement to rival many more-established institutions. The university is a part of the largest higher education campus in the UK and one of...
Canterbury Christ Church University
Canterbury Christ Church University was established in 1962. The university was established by Church of England. Canterbury Christ Church University has one of the best records in the country for graduates in employment (according to the Destination of Leavers from Higher Education...
The Roehampton University is one of the newest universities in the UK, having been established in 2004. Roehampton University is the successor to Roehampton Institute of Higher Education (RIHE), which was created in 1975. It was formed by the federation of four teacher training...
University of Sunderland
University of Sunderland was established in 1901 as Sunderland Technical College. As a dynamic new College, Sunderland was the first in England to introduce the 'sandwich course' which enabled engineering apprentices to gain higher qualifications whilst working. In 1992...
Liverpool John Moores University
Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) trace the evolution and development from its earliest incarnation in 1825 as the Liverpool Mechanics' Institute through to its designation as a university in 1992. Specific collections focus on the School of Art, Byrom Street and the IM Marsh...
Edinburgh Napier University
The Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh was established in 1964 as Napier Technical College, taking its name from John Napier, the inventor of logarithms, who was born at Merchiston Castle the site of the University's Merchiston campus. In 1966, it was renamed Napier College of...
University of Glamorgan
University of Glamorgan was established in 1913 as a School of Mines based in Treforest, Pontypridd, serving the large coal mining industry in the South Wales Valleys. The school was taken over by Glamorgan County Council and became Glamorgan Technical College in 1949, reflecting its...
Buckinghamshire New University
Buckinghamshire New University was established in 1975 by the merger of the High Wycombe College of Art and Technology with the Newland Park College of Education in Chalfont St Giles (a former Teacher Training College) to form Buckinghamshire College of Higher Education. In 1989, the...
Edge Hill University
Edge Hill University was established in 1885 as the first non-denominational teacher training college for women in England. Edge Hill was named after the district of Liverpool where the original building was sited. The institution relocated to a purpose-built campus in Ormskirk in...
Leeds Beckett University
Leeds Beckett University formerly known as Leeds Metropolitan University e stablished in 1824, is one of the largest and most multicultural universities in the UK - having around 26,000 students including 3,000 international students from 116 different countries. Leeds Beckett...
University for the Creative Arts
University for the Creative Arts (UCA) was established in 2005 through the merger of The Surrey Institute of Art & Design and the Kent Institute of Art & Design (KIAD). In 2008, after being granted university title by the Privy Council, the new name of University for the...
Teesside University was established in 1930 as Constantine College and the college became a polytechnic in 1969. In 1992, the Constantine College got the University status. It is one of the top UK universities for widening participation in higher education. Their vision is to achieve...
University of Cumbria
University of Cumbria was established in 2007 from Cumbria Institute of the Arts, St Martin's College and the Cumbrian campus of UCLan. The University aim to ensure as many people as possible benefit from the transformational opportunities provided by higher education. This includes...
University of Derby
University of Derby was established in 1851. The University of Derby is a modern, innovative education provider that achieved its university status in 1992. Teaching at Derby was started in 1851, when it was a Diocesan Institution for Training, so they have over 160 years of...
About Glyndwr University Glyndwr University is based in Wrexham with campuses and facilities around North East Wales. has educational roots going back to 1887, we have a long history of providing higher education in the region, with prestigious new centres having launched...
University of Greenwich
University of Greenwich established in 1890, is a British university located in the London Borough of Greenwich. The University history goes when Woolwich Polytechnic was founded as the second oldest Polytechnic of the United Kingdom. In 1970, Woolwich Polytechnic merged with other...
York St John University
York St John University was established in 1841 as York Diocesan Training School, for teacher education. In 1999 the College’s Board of Governors decided to relocate all taught courses to the York campus - and by the end of 2001 all students and staff had transferred across to...
University of Wales Trinity Saint David
University of Wales Trinity Saint David was established in 1848 as in the name of Trinity College. In 1996 the privy council agreed to change its title again to the University of Wales, Lampeter. In 2007, the University of Wales became confederal, effectively giving Lampeter...
University of South Wales
University of South Wales, Pontypridd was established in 1841. The University has a long tradition of providing high quality undergraduate, postgraduate and professional courses. They have well-qualified and experienced academic and support staff who care about all students and...
Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University was established in 1858 as School of Art in Sidney Street by John Ruskin, which grew to become the modern Anglia Ruskin University. 153 years later, the School of Art still forms part of their University, now much expanded beyond its original confines with...
University of Worcester
University of Worcester was established in 1946 as an Emergency Teacher Training College for world-class teaching and practical, purposeful research. In 2005, UCW awarded full University status and adopts its new title: University of Worcester. They are a vibrant, forward-looking...
Staffordshire University established in 1992, has evolved into one of the country's most dynamic, progressive and forward thinking learning institutions. Staffordshire University has a long and proud history of providing high quality, progressive and inclusive higher education for...
London South Bank University
London South Bank University (LSBU) was established in 1892 as the Borough Polytechnic Institute. London South Bank University (LSBU) has focused on providing professional opportunity for all who can benefit for well over a century. Their original aim 'to promote the industrial...
University of West London
University of West London was established in 1860 by Lady Byron School, the education institution as it exists today was originally formed from the merger of Ealing College of Higher Education, Thames Valley College of Higher Education, the London College of Music and Queen...
Southampton Solent University
Southampton Solent University (SSU) was established in 1989 as an independent higher education institution. Southampton Solent University became a university in 2005. The University is particularly well known for the distinctiveness and excellence of its provision in maritime...
University of the West of Scotland
University of the West of Scotland (UWS) was established in 1897. UWS is Scotland's largest modern university. With campuses across the West of Scotland in Ayr, Dumfries, Hamilton and Paisley, the University occupies an integral position within Scotland's proud tradition of...
London Metropolitan University
London Metropolitan University established in 2002, is a public university. London Metropolitan University also known as London Met. The university was established by the amalgamation of the University of North London established in 1896 and London Guildhall University established in...
University of East London
University of East London (UEL) established in 1992, is a global learning community with over 28,000 students from over 120 countries world-wide. Their vision is to be an enterprising, international university bringing transformational opportunities to individuals, communities and...
University of Bolton
University of Bolton was established in 1824 when it opened as the mechanics institute. The University of Bolton is a local institution with international reach. The university granted university status in 2005, Bolton now has a global student body of around 14,000 - including all...
* Source: The Complete University Guide - University League Table 2013 - (Last Updated : 06/08/2012)