GATE 2019 Syllabus for Biotechnology

GATE 2019 Syllabus for Biotechnology – GATE 2019 exam is managed by the IIT. Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is a national level examination, and in relevant branches of science, it is conducted to offer admission into M.Tech/M.Sc in engineering/ technology/ architecture and P.hD. GATE 2019 Mock Tests have been released.

In each of the GATE 2019 subjects, the topics have been divided into two categories. On core topics, the corresponding sections (of the syllabus given below) of the question paper will contain 90% of their questions and the remaining 10% on Special Topics.

About Biotechnology

The combined education of engineering and biology for research & development is termed biotechnology engineering. It is a combination of engineering, chemistry, genetics, biochemistry, and microbiology.


Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Systems of linear equations, Matrices and determinants, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.

Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Sequences and series, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE-Laplace, heat and wave equations.Test for convergence, Fourier Series. Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients, Probability and Statistics: Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential equations. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression analysis.


General Biotechnology

Biochemistry: Biomolecules-structure and functions; Basic concepts and designs of metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids) photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain;  Biological membranes, structure, action potential and transport processes; Enzymes- classification, kinetics and mechanism of action; Bioenergetics

Cell Biology:  Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell-Cell communication, Cell signalling and signal transduction Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure;

Microbiology: Viruses- structure and classification; Microbial classification and diversity(bacterial, algal and fungal);  Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and host-pathogen interaction; Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and nutrition;

Complementation: Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extrachromosomal inheritance; Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; Mutations and mutagenesis; Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation and their regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA

Principles of microscopy -light, electron, fluorescent and confocal; Damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases Analytical Techniques:

Centrifugation– high speed and ultra; Principles of chromatography- ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC, HPLC, FPLC; Electrophoresis;  Principles of spectroscopy-UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR, Raman, MS, NMR; Microarray

Molecular basis of antibody diversity: Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; Immunology: History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell-mediated immunity; Antigen; Antibody structure and function; B and T cells and macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.

Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny); Bioinformatics: Major bioinformatic resources and search tools; Sequence and structure databases; Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and

Proteomic studies; Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-ligand interaction)


Recombinant DNA Technology

 DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors; plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; In-situ hybridisation; RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy

mammalian and plant expression vectors; DNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation, cloning and expression; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labelling; Southern and northern blotting;


Plant and Animal Biotechnology

Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, kinetics of growth and, nutrient optimisation; Hairy root culture; transgenic plants; Plant products of industrial importance

Kinetics of cell growth; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology; Animal cell culture; media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Animal cloning; Transgenic animals


Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

Rheology of fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation; Media formulation and optimization; Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Sterilization of air and media; Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system, Principle of reactor design, ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation control and optimization; Unit operations in solid-liquid separation and liquid-liquid extraction; Process scale-up, economics and feasibility analysis

Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites; Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics;  Engineering principle of bioprocessing- Upstream production and downstream; Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale; Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms; Large-scale production and purification of recombinant proteins; Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane-based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and cells) for bioconversion processes; Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes.


Exam Pattern for GATE 2019


Exam Pattern for GATE 2019
Section Question No No of Questions Marks per Question Total Marks
General Aptitude 1 to 5 5 1 5
6 to 10 5 2 10
Technical &  Engineering 1 to 25 25 1 25
Mathematics 26 to 55 30 2 60


Total Questions: 65

Total Marks: 100

Total Duration : 3 hours

Technical Section: 70 marks

General Aptitude: 15 marks

Engineering Mathematics: 15 marks


25 marks to 40 marks will be allotted to Numerical Answer Type Questions

Reference Books for Biotechnology- GATE 2019

  • GATE Guide Biotechnology by Prabhanshu Kumar
  • GATE Tutor Biotechnology by B.M. Agarwal
  • MCQs Life Sciences – Biotechnology by Pranav Kumar, Satyendra Singh

Other GATE 2019 Syllabus and Information